Decarbonise public buildings ‘five times faster’ to meet net-zero targets, report says

The UK government is currently missing one of its core net-zero commitments to reduce CO2 emissions by 101 years, according to a new report.

The ‘Public Building Energy Efficiency’ report, conducted by network service providers Neos Networks, examined the actual energy usage and efficiency of over 450,000 public buildings in England and Wales. It analysed their display energy certificates (DECs) and ‘operational ratings’ (annual CO2 emission kg per m2), and highlighted the areas requiring immediate action and major investment in retrofitting public building stock.

The report projects that nine out of ten (91 per cent) public buildings will need upgrading in the next seven years if they are to meet stated net-zero targets.

CO2 emissions from public buildings need to be reduced five times faster than they’re currently falling to meet the target of ‘75 per cent reduction in CO2 emissions by 2037’. The report’s analysis of public building energy usage finds that the UK government risks missing its 75 per cent CO2 emission reduction target by 101 years.

On average across England and Wales, CO2 emissions per m2 have fallen by 0.62 per cent annually over the last 15 years. An annual reduction of 3.75 per cent is needed to achieve the core goal of a 75 per cent reduction in CO2 emissions by 2037, compared to the 2017 benchmark as outlined in the UK government’s net zero and heat and buildings strategies.

However, there is a mixed picture across the local authorities. Public buildings in a third (32 per cent) of local authorities have seen an increase in their CO2 emissions per m2. In some areas, operational rating emissions have risen by over 70 per cent.

By contrast, more than two-thirds (68 per cent) of local authorities brought emissions down. Merthyr Tydfil (-68.20 per cent), East Hertfordshire (-54.23 per cent) and Portsmouth (-54.35 per cent) were the best performers, highlighting what is possible with targeted investment.

The data highlights the need for immediate action to improve energy efficiency in public buildings. Almost 13 per cent of public buildings fall below the current minimum energy-efficiency standards (MEES) EPC rating of E for non-domestic buildings, based on their latest display energy certificate score.

Central government funding for local authorities fell by over 50 per cent in real terms between 2010-11 and 2020-21, according to government committee reports. The report findings reignite calls for government investment to support local authorities improving the energy efficiency of schools, NHS facilities and other public buildings.

William Harris, a senior account director at Neos Networks, said: “These findings highlight the size of the task ahead if authorities are to meet targets. It’s clear that greater support from central government is needed and investment in network connectivity across public buildings is a crucial first step.

“This will enable more effective data collection and analysis to make informed decisions about the public building stock in each area. Then there can be a targeted approach, guided by specialists, to investing in CO2 emission reduction measures where the need is greatest.”

Daniel Scott, vice president, Danfoss Climate Solutions, said: “Around 40 per cent of the energy consumed in cities can be attributed to buildings and one of the most effective steps that can be taken to reduce the CO2 emissions from public buildings is to make their energy systems more effective. Heating and cooling are the biggest energy consumers in public buildings and more efforts need to be made to prioritise solutions that use less energy overall.

“Excess heat is the world’s largest untapped source of energy and yet there are very few efforts to reuse it. Many public buildings are located close to other sources of heat, such as data centres, supermarkets or Underground stations. There is tremendous potential for capturing this excess heat and reusing it to heat local public buildings.

“In the Greater London area alone, we have identified 648 eligible excess heat sources that could potentially share their heat through a district energy system. All of this is possible with technology that is readily available today. We urgently need to accelerate the progress of energy efficiency in public buildings. After all, the greenest energy is the energy we don’t use.”

The Neos Networks report, Public Building Energy Efficiency, is available free online.

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